# Chapter 5 Management Procedures

The purpose of an MSE is to compare the performance of alternative management approaches, or ** Management Procedures** to identify the method that is most likely to meet the management objectives for the fishery.

## 5.1 What is a Management Procedure?

In essence, a Management Procedure is simply a set of rules which define how a fishery will be managed. These rules can range from simple harvest policies to more complex arrangements.

For example, a simple Management Procedure may be a constant catch policy, where the annual total allowable catch (TAC) is set a some fixed value. Alternatively, a more complex Management Procedure may involve multiple data sources, with rules that increase or reduce the TAC in response to trends in one or several indicators.

Management Procedures can differ in data requirements and complexity. However, all Management Procedures have one thing in common. They take fishery information and return a management recommendation.

To be included in an MSE, a Management Procedure must be reproducible and able to be coded in a set of instructions. While fisheries are sometimes managed by expert judgment, it is difficult to reproduce the subjective decision-making process in a computer simulation and include such methods in an MSE.

## 5.2 Available Management Procedures

All management procedures in DLMtool are objects (actually functions in this case) of class `MP`

. There are a number of MPs built into DLMtool. The `avail`

function can be used to provide a list of MPs that can be included in the MSE:

```
## [1] "AvC" "AvC_MLL" "BK" "BK_CC" "BK_ML" "CC1" "CC2"
## [8] "CC3" "CC4" "CC5" "CompSRA" "CompSRA4010" "CurC" "curE"
## [15] "curE75" "DAAC" "DBSRA" "DBSRA_40" "DBSRA4010" "DCAC" "DCAC_40"
## [22] "DCAC_ML" "DCAC4010" "DCACs" "DD" "DD4010" "DDe" "DDe75"
## [29] "DDes" "DepF" "DTe40" "DTe50" "DynF" "EtargetLopt" "Fadapt"
## [36] "Fdem" "Fdem_CC" "Fdem_ML" "FMSYref" "FMSYref50" "FMSYref75" "Fratio"
## [43] "Fratio_CC" "Fratio_ML" "Fratio4010" "GB_CC" "GB_slope" "GB_target" "Gcontrol"
## [50] "HDAAC" "ICI" "ICI2" "Iratio" "Islope1" "Islope2" "Islope3"
## [57] "Islope4" "IT10" "IT5" "Itarget1" "Itarget1_MPA" "Itarget2" "Itarget3"
## [64] "Itarget4" "ItargetE1" "ItargetE2" "ItargetE3" "ItargetE4" "ITe10" "ITe5"
## [71] "ITM" "L95target" "LBSPR" "LBSPR_MLL" "Lratio_BHI" "Lratio_BHI2" "Lratio_BHI3"
## [78] "LstepCC1" "LstepCC2" "LstepCC3" "LstepCC4" "LstepCE1" "LstepCE2" "Ltarget1"
## [85] "Ltarget2" "Ltarget3" "Ltarget4" "LtargetE1" "LtargetE4" "matlenlim" "matlenlim2"
## [92] "MCD" "MCD4010" "minlenLopt1" "MRnoreal" "MRreal" "NFref" "Rcontrol"
## [99] "Rcontrol2" "SBT1" "SBT2" "slotlim" "SPmod" "SPMSY" "SPslope"
## [106] "SPSRA" "SPSRA_ML" "YPR" "YPR_CC" "YPR_ML" "avgMP" "TCPUE"
## [113] "TCPUE_e" "THC"
```

As you can see, there are 114 MPs built into the DLMtool.

DLMtool is extensible and it is relatively straightforward to develop your own MPs and include them in the MSE. This is covered in Developing Custom Management Procedures.

## 5.3 Types of Management Procedure

In previous versions of DLMtool, the MPs were divided into two classes: Output controls which returned a total allowable catch (**TAC**) and Input controls which allow regulation of **fishing effort**, **size selectivity**, or **spatial area**.

Since DLMtool V5.1 it is possible to include MPs that provide a combination of input and output controls.

All MPs in DLMtool are now class `MP`

, but the MPs are divided into four types: **Input** which allow regulation offishing effort, size selectivity, or spatial area but not a TAC, **Output** which return only a TAC recommendation, **Mixed** which return a combination of one or several input controls *and* a TAC, and **Reference** which are MPs that have been designed to be used as reference management procedures (e.g `FMSYref`

which uses perfect information of FMSY and abundance).

The `MPtype`

function can be used to display the type for a particular MP, for example:

```
## MP Type Recs
## 1 DCAC Output TAC
```

This tells us that `DCAC`

is an Output control MP and returns a management recommendation in the form of a total allowable catch limit (TAC).

Here we list all available MPs:

```
## MP Type Recs
## 1 curE Input TAE
## 2 curE75 Input TAE
## 3 DDe Input TAE
## 4 DDe75 Input TAE
## 5 DDes Input TAE
## 6 DTe40 Input TAE
## 7 DTe50 Input TAE
## 8 EtargetLopt Input TAE
## 9 ItargetE1 Input TAE
## 10 ItargetE2 Input TAE
## 11 ItargetE3 Input TAE
## 12 ItargetE4 Input TAE
## 13 ITe10 Input TAE
## 14 ITe5 Input TAE
## 15 LBSPR Input TAE
## 16 LBSPR_MLL Input SL
## 17 LstepCE1 Input TAE
## 18 LstepCE2 Input TAE
## 19 LtargetE1 Input TAE
## 20 LtargetE4 Input TAE
## 21 matlenlim Input SL
## 22 matlenlim2 Input SL
## 23 minlenLopt1 Input SL
## 24 MRnoreal Input Spatial
## 25 MRreal Input Spatial
## 26 slotlim Input SL
## 27 TCPUE_e Input TAE
## 28 AvC_MLL Mixed TAC, SL
## 29 Itarget1_MPA Mixed TAC, Spatial
## 30 AvC Output TAC
## 31 BK Output TAC
## 32 BK_CC Output TAC
## 33 BK_ML Output TAC
## 34 CC1 Output TAC
## 35 CC2 Output TAC
## 36 CC3 Output TAC
## 37 CC4 Output TAC
## 38 CC5 Output TAC
## 39 CompSRA Output TAC
## 40 CompSRA4010 Output TAC
## 41 CurC Output TAC
## 42 DAAC Output TAC
## 43 DBSRA Output TAC
## 44 DBSRA_40 Output TAC
## 45 DBSRA4010 Output TAC
## 46 DCAC Output TAC
## 47 DCAC_40 Output TAC
## 48 DCAC_ML Output TAC
## 49 DCAC4010 Output TAC
## 50 DCACs Output TAC
## 51 DD Output TAC
## 52 DD4010 Output TAC
## 53 DepF Output TAC
## 54 DynF Output TAC
## 55 Fadapt Output TAC
## 56 Fdem Output TAC
## 57 Fdem_CC Output TAC
## 58 Fdem_ML Output TAC
## 59 Fratio Output TAC
## 60 Fratio_CC Output TAC
## 61 Fratio_ML Output TAC
## 62 Fratio4010 Output TAC
## 63 GB_CC Output TAC
## 64 GB_slope Output TAC
## 65 GB_target Output TAC
## 66 Gcontrol Output TAC
## 67 HDAAC Output TAC
## 68 ICI Output TAC
## 69 ICI2 Output TAC
## 70 Iratio Output TAC
## 71 Islope1 Output TAC
## 72 Islope2 Output TAC
## 73 Islope3 Output TAC
## 74 Islope4 Output TAC
## 75 IT10 Output TAC
## 76 IT5 Output TAC
## 77 Itarget1 Output TAC
## 78 Itarget2 Output TAC
## 79 Itarget3 Output TAC
## 80 Itarget4 Output TAC
## 81 ITM Output TAC
## 82 L95target Output TAC
## 83 Lratio_BHI Output TAC
## 84 Lratio_BHI2 Output TAC
## 85 Lratio_BHI3 Output TAC
## 86 LstepCC1 Output TAC
## 87 LstepCC2 Output TAC
## 88 LstepCC3 Output TAC
## 89 LstepCC4 Output TAC
## 90 Ltarget1 Output TAC
## 91 Ltarget2 Output TAC
## 92 Ltarget3 Output TAC
## 93 Ltarget4 Output TAC
## 94 MCD Output TAC
## 95 MCD4010 Output TAC
## 96 Rcontrol Output TAC
## 97 Rcontrol2 Output TAC
## 98 SBT1 Output TAC
## 99 SBT2 Output TAC
## 100 SPmod Output TAC
## 101 SPMSY Output TAC
## 102 SPslope Output TAC
## 103 SPSRA Output TAC
## 104 SPSRA_ML Output TAC
## 105 YPR Output TAC
## 106 YPR_CC Output TAC
## 107 YPR_ML Output TAC
## 108 avgMP Output TAC
## 109 TCPUE Output TAC
## 110 THC Output TAC
## 111 FMSYref Reference TAC
## 112 FMSYref50 Reference TAC
## 113 FMSYref75 Reference TAC
## 114 NFref Reference TAC
```

You can access help documentation for the MPs in the usual fashion, for example:

### 5.3.1 Input Control MPs

Input controls allow some combination of adjustments to **fishing effort**, **size selectivity**, or **spatial area**.

The available input control MPs are:

```
## [1] "curE" "curE75" "DDe" "DDe75" "DDes" "DTe40" "DTe50" "EtargetLopt"
## [9] "ItargetE1" "ItargetE2" "ItargetE3" "ItargetE4" "ITe10" "ITe5" "LBSPR" "LBSPR_MLL"
## [17] "LstepCE1" "LstepCE2" "LtargetE1" "LtargetE4" "matlenlim" "matlenlim2" "minlenLopt1" "MRnoreal"
## [25] "MRreal" "slotlim" "TCPUE_e"
```

Remember, to access help documentation:

More information on input control MPs can be found in Beyond the Catch Limit.

### 5.3.2 Output Control MPs

The output control methods in the DLMtool provide a management recommendation in the form of a TAC. Some output controls are stochastic, allowing for uncertainty in the data or input parameters, and return a distribution of recommended TACs.

Output control methods are very common in fisheries management, especially in regions which have a tradition of managing fisheries by regulating the total amount of catch.

The available output controls are:

```
## [1] "AvC" "BK" "BK_CC" "BK_ML" "CC1" "CC2" "CC3" "CC4"
## [9] "CC5" "CompSRA" "CompSRA4010" "CurC" "DAAC" "DBSRA" "DBSRA_40" "DBSRA4010"
## [17] "DCAC" "DCAC_40" "DCAC_ML" "DCAC4010" "DCACs" "DD" "DD4010" "DepF"
## [25] "DynF" "Fadapt" "Fdem" "Fdem_CC" "Fdem_ML" "Fratio" "Fratio_CC" "Fratio_ML"
## [33] "Fratio4010" "GB_CC" "GB_slope" "GB_target" "Gcontrol" "HDAAC" "ICI" "ICI2"
## [41] "Iratio" "Islope1" "Islope2" "Islope3" "Islope4" "IT10" "IT5" "Itarget1"
## [49] "Itarget2" "Itarget3" "Itarget4" "ITM" "L95target" "Lratio_BHI" "Lratio_BHI2" "Lratio_BHI3"
## [57] "LstepCC1" "LstepCC2" "LstepCC3" "LstepCC4" "Ltarget1" "Ltarget2" "Ltarget3" "Ltarget4"
## [65] "MCD" "MCD4010" "Rcontrol" "Rcontrol2" "SBT1" "SBT2" "SPmod" "SPMSY"
## [73] "SPslope" "SPSRA" "SPSRA_ML" "YPR" "YPR_CC" "YPR_ML" "avgMP" "TCPUE"
## [81] "THC"
```

### 5.3.3 Mixed MPs

Mixed MPs return a combination of input and output controls. Currently there are only a few mixed MPs in DLMtool, and these were developed simply for demonstration purposes. They may not work very well! See Developing Custom Management Procedures for more information on developing your own mixed MPs. And please share them with us, we’d love to add them to DLMtool!

`## [1] "AvC_MLL" "Itarget1_MPA"`

### 5.3.4 Reference MPs

The final type is the reference MPs. These MPs are not designed to be used in practice, but are useful for providing a reference for comparing for the performance of other MPs. For example, the `FMSYref`

and `NFref`

methods (fishing perfectedly at F[MSY] and no fishing at all) can be useful for framing realistic performance with respect to a set of management objectives.

The available reference MPs are:

`## [1] "FMSYref" "FMSYref50" "FMSYref75" "NFref"`